Original Article

Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)


Objectives: Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) is a rare, inherited, immunodeficiency disease which is caused by defects in the leukocyte adhesion process. The migration of leukocytes to the blood vessel’s wall, needs multiple steps called adhesion cascade. In LAD, defects in rolling, integrin activation and firm adhesion of the leukocytes have been described.
Methods: In this study, we selected 67 patients with the confirmed diagnosis of LADs, from Iranian immunodeficiency registry center. A demographic information of the clinical complications and laboratory data were obtained from all the patients to evaluate the clinical manifestations.
Results: A total of 67 patients (38 male and 29 female), with a median age of 18 months old, were included in the present study. The first presentations were omphalitis in 28.35% of the cases, followed by delayed umbilical cord separation in 22.38% of the patients. The frequency of delayed umbilical cord separation was 41.8%, and was higher among other manifestations of our patients. Cellulitis and Omphalitis were observed in 40.3% and 38.8% of the patients, respectively. Regarding the laboratory findings, we found leukocytosis in 86.6 %( neutrophil dominant in 76.1%), and anemia in 77.6%, and thrombocytosis in 25.4% of the patients.
Conclusion: We indicated in the present study that the most common clinical manifestations, were delayed umbilical cord separation and recurrent infection in Iranian patients with LAD disorders. In laboratory findings, we found leukocytosis in most of the patients. CD18 was decreased in more than 90 % of the patients.

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IssueVol 4, No 1 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/igj.v4i1.8395
Adhesion Immunodeficiency Leukocyte Recurrent Infection

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How to Cite
Nirouei M, Maghoul A, Heidarzadeh M, Sharif R. Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD). Immunol Genet J. 2021;4(1):60-66.